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I like to call it the Body String Test. The Body String Test was developed by researchers at Oxford Brookes University in the United Kingdom. What they found was that more traditional methods of measurement like Body Mass Index (BMI) tended to miss people at risk.

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I like to call it the Body String Test. The Body String Test was developed by researchers at Oxford Brookes University in the United Kingdom. What they found was that more traditional methods of measurement like Body Mass Index (BMI) tended to miss people at risk.
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I like to call it the Body String Test. The Body String Test was developed by researchers at Oxford Brookes University in the United Kingdom. What they found was that more traditional methods of measurement like Body Mass Index (BMI) tended to miss people at risk.

You just print an object and your trace confirm it. This returns your object in string format. This returns your response. I think this solve your problem But some one down voted my answer. Nov 4 '15 at 5: Solved it in seconds. You saved my day! No more string function, what now? Oded Regev 1, 2 23 Ever solved this issue? Not sure if you can call. Please use as below: Yannis 1, 3 15 Nethaji Narasimalu 59 1. Many believe this design improves a guitar's sustain and timbre.

Compared to an acoustic guitar, which has a hollow body, electric guitars make much less audible sound when their strings are plucked, so electric guitars are normally plugged into a guitar amplifier and speaker. When an electric guitar is played, string movement produces a signal by generating i. The signal passes through the tone and volume circuits to the output jack, and through a cable to an amplifier.

Because in most cases it is desirable to isolate coil-wound pickups from the unintended sound of internal vibration of loose coil windings, a guitar's magnetic pickups are normally embedded or "potted" in wax, lacquer , or epoxy to prevent the pickup from producing a microphonic effect. Because of their natural inductive qualities, all magnetic pickups tend to pick up ambient, usually unwanted electromagnetic interference or EMI.

The most common source is or Hz hum from power transmission systems house wiring, etc. Since nearly all amplifiers and audio equipment associated with electric guitars must be plugged in, it is a continuing technical challenge to reduce or eliminate unwanted hum. Double-coil or " humbucker " pickups were invented as a way to reduce or counter the unwanted ambient hum sounds known as cycle hum. Humbuckers have two coils of opposite magnetic and electric polarity to produce a differential signal.

Electromagnetic noise that hits both coils equally tries to drive the pickup signal toward positive on one coil and toward negative on the other, which cancels out the noise. The two coils are wired in phase, so their signal adds together. This high combined inductance of the two coils leads to the richer, "fatter" tone associated with humbucking pickups. Piezoelectric pickups use a "sandwich" of quartz crystal or other piezoelectric material, typically placed beneath the string saddles or nut.

These devices respond to pressure changes from all vibration at these specific points. Optical pickups are a type of pickup that sense string and body vibrations using infrared LED light. These pickups are not sensitive to EMI. Some "hybrid" electric guitars are equipped with additional microphone , piezoelectric, optical, or other types of transducers to approximate an acoustic instrument tone and broaden the sonic palette of the instrument.

Electric guitar necks vary in composition and shape. The primary metric of guitar necks is the scale length , which is the vibrating length of the strings from nut to bridge. A typical Fender guitar uses a While the scale length of the Les Paul is often described as Frets are positioned proportionally to scale length—the shorter the scale length, the closer the fret spacing.

Opinions vary regarding the effect of scale length on tone and feel. Popular opinion holds that longer scale length contributes to greater amplitude. Reports of playing feel are greatly complicated by the many factors involved in this perception. String gauge and design, neck construction and relief, guitar setup, playing style and other factors contribute to the subjective impression of playability or feel.

Necks are described as bolt-on , set-in , or neck-through , depending on how they attach to the body. Set-in necks are glued to the body in the factory. They are said to have a warmer tone and greater sustain. Leo Fender pioneered bolt-on necks on electric guitars to facilitate easy adjustment and replacement. Neck-through instruments extend the neck the length of the instrument, so that it forms the center of the body, and are known for long sustain and for being particularly sturdy.

Historically, the bolt-on style has been more popular for ease of installation and adjustment. Since bolt-on necks can be easily removed, there is an after-market in replacement bolt-on necks from companies such as Warmoth and Mighty Mite.

Some instruments—notably most Gibson models—continue to use set-in glued necks. Neck-through bodies are somewhat more common in bass guitars. Materials for necks are selected for dimensional stability and rigidity, and some allege that they influence tone. Hardwoods are preferred, with maple , mahogany , and ash topping the list. The neck and fingerboard can be made from different materials; for example, a guitar may have a maple neck with a rosewood or ebony fingerboard. In the s, designers began to use exotic man-made materials such as aircraft-grade aluminum , carbon fiber , and ebonol.

Aside from possible engineering advantages, some feel that in relation to the rising cost of rare tonewoods , man-made materials may be economically preferable and more ecologically sensitive. However, wood remains popular in production instruments, though sometimes in conjunction with new materials. Vigier guitars , for example, use a wooden neck reinforced by embedding a light, carbon fiber rod in place of the usual heavier steel bar or adjustable steel truss rod.

After-market necks made entirely from carbon fiber fit existing bolt-on instruments. Few, if any, extensive formal investigations have been widely published that confirm or refute claims over the effects of different woods or materials on electric guitar sound. Several neck shapes appear on guitars, including shapes known as C necks, U necks, and V necks. These refer to the cross-sectional shape of the neck especially near the nut.

Several sizes of fret wire are available, with traditional players often preferring thin frets, and metal shredders liking thick frets. Thin frets are considered better for playing chords, while thick frets allow lead guitarists to bend notes with less effort. An electric guitar with a folding neck called the "Foldaxe" was designed and built for Chet Atkins by Roger C. Fingerboards vary as much as necks. The fingerboard surface usually has a cross-sectional radius that is optimized to accommodate finger movement for different playing techniques.

Fingerboard radius typically ranges from nearly flat a very large radius to radically arched a small radius. The vintage Fender Telecaster , for example, has a typical small radius of approximately 7. Some manufacturers have experimented with fret profile and material, fret layout, number of frets, and modifications of the fingerboard surface for various reasons.

Some innovations were intended to improve playability by ergonomic means, such as Warmoth Guitars' compound radius fingerboard. Scalloped fingerboards added enhanced microtonality during fast legato runs. Fanned frets intend to provide each string with an optimal playing tension and enhanced musicality.

Some guitars have no frets—and others, like the Gittler guitar , have no neck in the traditional sense. While an acoustic guitar 's sound depends largely on the vibration of the guitar's body and the air inside it, the sound of an electric guitar depends largely on the signal from the pickups. The signal can be " shaped " on its path to the amplifier via a range of effect devices or circuits that modify the tone and characteristics of the signal. Amplifiers and speakers also add coloration to the final sound.

Modern electric guitars most commonly have two or three magnetic pickups. Identical pickups produce different tones depending on location between the neck and bridge. Bridge pickups produce a bright or trebly timbre, and neck pickups are warmer [ when defined as? The type of pickup also affects tone.

Dual-coil pickups sound warm, thick, perhaps even muddy [ citation needed ] ; single-coil pickups sound clear, bright, perhaps even biting [ citation needed ]. Guitars don't require a uniform pickup type: Some guitars have a piezoelectric pickup in addition to electromagnetic pickups. Piezo pickups produce a more acoustic sound. The piezo runs through a built-in equalizer EQ to improve similitude and control tone. A blend knob controls the mix between electromagnetic and piezoelectric sounds.

Where there is more than one pickup, a switch selects between the outputs of individual pickups or some combination; two-pickup guitars have three-way switches, and three-pickup guitars have five-way switches. Further circuitry sometimes combines pickups in different ways.

For instance, phase switching places one pickup out of phase with the other s , leading to a "honky", "nasal", or " funky " sound [ citation needed ]. Individual pickups can also have their timbre altered by switches, typically coil tap switches that effectively short-circuit some of a dual-coil pickup's windings [ vague ] to produce a tone similar to a single-coil pickup usually done with push-pull volume knobs.

The final stages of on-board sound-shaping circuitry are the volume control potentiometer and tone control a low-pass filter which "rolls off" the treble frequencies. Where there are individual volume controls for different pickups, and where pickup signals can be combined, they would affect the timbre of the final sound by adjusting the balance between pickups from a straight The strings fitted to the guitar also have an influence on tone.

Rock musicians often [ when? Steel, nickel, and cobalt are common string materials, and each gives a slightly different tone color. The solid-body electric guitar does not produce enough sound for an audience to hear it in a performance setting unless it's electronically amplified—plugged into an amplifier , mixing console , or PA. Guitar amplifier design uses a different approach than sound reinforcement system power amplifiers and home "hi-fi" stereo systems.

Audio amplifiers generally are intended to accurately reproduce the source signal without adding unwanted tonal coloration i. In contrast, most guitar amplifiers provide tonal coloration and overdrive or distortion of various types. A common tonal coloration sought by guitarists is rolling off some of the high frequencies. Guitarists in some musical genres e. This was not actually a new development in the musical instrument or its supporting gear, but rather a shift of aesthetics , such sounds not having been thought desirable previously.

Guitar amplifiers generally incorporate at least a few effects , the most basic being tone controls for bass and treble. There may be some form of "overdrive" control, where the preamplifier's output is increased to the point where the amplitude overloads the input of the power amplifier stage, causing clipping.

In the s, as effects pedals proliferated, their sounds were combined with tube amp distortion at lower, more controlled volumes by using power attenuators , such as Tom Scholz 's Power Soak, as well as re-amplified dummy loads, such as Eddie Van Halen 's use of dummy-load power resistor, post-power-tube effects, and a final solid-state amp driving the guitar speakers. Among the first actual on-board effects were a tremolo system sometimes incorrectly labeled and marketed as vibrato , or a mechanical spring reverb unit.

In the s, guitar amps often contain multiple effects, such as distortion , chorus, flanger, phaser, or octave shift. Recent amplifiers may include digital technology similar to effects pedals, up to the ability to model or emulate a variety of classic amplifiers.

Some modeling systems also emulate the tonal characteristics of different speaker configurations, cabinets, and microphones. Nearly all amp and speaker cabinet modeling is done digitally, using computer techniques e. In the s, the tonal palette of the electric guitar was further modified by introducing effect units in its signal path, before the guitar amp, of which one of the earliest units was the fuzz pedal. Effects units come in several formats, the most common of which are the stompbox "pedal" and the rackmount unit.

A stomp box or pedal is a small metal or plastic box containing the circuitry, which is placed on the floor in front of the musician and connected in line with the patch cord connected to the instrument. The box is typically controlled by one or more foot-pedal on-off switches and it typically contains only one or two effects. Pedals are smaller than rackmount effects and usually less expensive.

A rackmount effects unit may contain an electronic circuit nearly identical to a stompbox-based effect, but it is mounted in a standard 19" equipment rack, which is usually mounted in a road case that is designed to protect the equipment during transport. More recently, as signal-processing technology continuously becomes more feature-dense, rack-mount effects units frequently contain several types of effects.

They are typically controlled by knobs or switches on the front panel, and often by a MIDI digital control interface. A multi-effects device also called a "multi-FX" device is a single electronics effects pedal or rack-mount device that contains many electronic effects. In the late s and throughout the s, multi-FX manufacturers such as Zoom and Korg produced devices that were increasingly feature-laden. Multi-FX devices combine several effects together, and most devices allow users to use preset combinations of effects, including distortion, chorus, reverb, compression, and so on.

This allows musicians to have quick on-stage access to different effects combinations. Some multi-FX pedals contain modelled versions of well-known effects pedals or amplifiers. Multi-effects devices have garnered a large share of the effects device market, because they offer the user such a large variety of effects in a single package.

A low-priced multi-effects pedal may provide 20 or more effects for the price of a regular single-effect pedal. More expensive multi-effect pedals may include 40 or more effects, amplifier modelling, and the ability to combine effects or modelled amp sounds in different combinations, as if the user was using multiple guitar amps.

More expensive multi-effects pedals may also include more input and output jacks e. By the s and s, software effects became capable of replicating the analog effects used in the past. These new digital effects attempt to model the sound produced by analog effects and tube amps, with varying degrees of quality. There are many free guitar effects computer programs that can be downloaded from the Internet. Now, computers with sound cards can be used as digital guitar effects processors.

Although digital and software effects offer many advantages, many guitarists still use analog effects. The sound of a guitar can not only be adapted by electronic sound effects but is also heavily affected by various new techniques developed or becoming possible in combination with electric amplification. This is called extended technique. Other techniques, such as axial finger vibrato , pull-offs , hammer-ons , palm muting , harmonics and altered tunings , are also used on the classical and acoustic guitar.

Shred guitar is a genre involving a number of extended techniques. Unlike acoustic guitars, solid-body electric guitars have no vibrating soundboard to amplify string vibration. Instead, solid-body instruments depend on electric pickups and an amplifier or amp and speaker. The solid body ensures that the amplified sound reproduces the string vibration alone, thus avoiding the wolf tones and unwanted feedback associated with amplified acoustic guitars.

These guitars are generally made of hardwood covered with a hard polymer finish, often polyester or lacquer. In large production facilities, the wood is stored for three to six months in a wood-drying kiln before being cut to shape. Premium custom-built guitars are frequently made with much older, hand-selected wood. One of the first solid-body guitars was invented by Les Paul. Gibson did not present their Gibson Les Paul guitar prototypes to the public, as they did not believe the solid-body style would catch on.

Another early solid-body Spanish style guitar, resembling what would become Gibson's Les Paul guitar a decade later, was developed in by O. Appleton, of Nogales, Arizona. The first mass-produced solid-body guitar was Fender Esquire and Fender Broadcaster later to become the Fender Telecaster , first made in , five years after Les Paul made his prototype.

The Gibson Les Paul appeared soon after to compete with the Broadcaster. The history of Electric Guitars is summarized by Guitar World magazine, and the earliest electric guitar on their top 10 list is the Ro-Pat-In Electro A "Frying Pan" described as 'The first-fully functioning solid-body electric guitar to be manufactured and sold'. These hollows are designed specifically not to interfere with the critical bridge and string anchor point on the solid body. In the case of Gibson and PRS, these are called chambered bodies.

The motivation for this may be to reduce weight, to achieve a semi-acoustic tone see below or both. Semi-acoustic guitars have a hollow body similar in depth to a solid-body guitar and electronic pickups mounted on the body. They work in a similar way to solid-body electric guitars except that, because the hollow body also vibrates, the pickups convert a combination of string and body vibration into an electrical signal.

Whereas chambered guitars are made, like solid-body guitars, from a single block of wood, semi-acoustic and full-hollowbody guitars bodies are made from thin sheets of wood. They do not provide enough acoustic volume for live performance, but they can be used unplugged for quiet practice. Semi-acoustics are noted for being able to provide a sweet, plaintive, or funky tone. They are used in many genres, including blues, funk , sixties pop, and indie rock.

They generally have cello-style F-shaped sound holes. These can be blocked off to prevent feedback, as in B. King 's famous Lucille. Feedback can also be reduced by making them with a solid block in the middle of the soundbox.

Full hollow-body guitars have large, deep bodies made of glued-together sheets, or "plates", of wood. They can often be played at the same volume as an acoustic guitar and therefore can be used unplugged at intimate gigs. They qualify as electric guitars inasmuch as they have fitted pickups. Historically, archtop guitars with retrofitted pickups were among the very earliest electric guitars.

The instrument originated during the Jazz Age , in the s and s, and are still considered the classic jazz guitar nicknamed "jazzbox". Like semi-acoustic guitars, they often have f-shaped sound holes. Having humbucker pickups sometimes just a neck pickup and usually strung heavlly, jazzboxes are noted for their warm, rich tone.

A variation with single-coil pickups, and sometimes with a Bigsby tremolo , has long been popular in country and rockabilly ; it has a distinctly more twangy, biting tone than the classic jazzbox. The term archtop refers to a method of construction subtly different from the typical acoustic or "folk" or "western" or "steel-string" guitar: Some steel-string acoustic guitars are fitted with pickups purely as an alternative to using a separate microphone.

They may also be fitted with a piezoelectric pickup under the bridge, attached to the bridge mounting plate, or with a low-mass microphone usually a condenser mic inside the body of the guitar that converts the vibrations in the body into electronic signals.

Such instruments are called electric acoustic guitars. They are regarded as acoustic guitars rather than electric guitars, because the pickups do not produce a signal directly from the vibration of the strings, but rather from the vibration of the guitar top or body.

Electric acoustic guitars should not be confused with semi-acoustic guitars , which have pickups of the type found on solid-body electric guitars, or solid-body hybrid guitars with piezoelectric pickups.

The one-string guitar is also known as the Unitar. Although rare, the one-string guitar is sometimes heard, particularly in Delta blues , where improvised folk instruments were popular in the s and s. Eddie "One String" Jones had some regional success. In a more contemporary style, Little Willie Joe, the inventor of the Unitar , had a rhythm and blues instrumental hit in the s with "Twitchy", recorded with the Rene Hall Orchestra. The four-string guitar is better known as the tenor guitar.

One of its best-known players was Tiny Grimes , who played on 52nd Street with the beboppers and played a major role in the Prestige Blues Swingers. Multi-instrumentalist Warren Ellis musician of Dirty Three and Nick Cave and the Bad Seeds is a contemporary player who includes a tenor guitar in his repertoire.

The tenor guitar can also be tuned like a soprano, concert, or tenor ukulele, using versions of GCEA tuning. Most seven-string guitars add a low B string below the low E. Both electric and classical guitars exist designed for this tuning. A high A string above the high E instead of the low B string is sometimes used. Another less common seven-string arrangement is a second G string situated beside the standard G string and tuned an octave higher, in the same manner as a twelve-stringed guitar see below.

Seven-string electric guitars were popularized among rock players in the s by Steve Vai. Along with the Japanese guitar company Ibanez , Vai created the Universe series seven-string guitars in the s, with a double locking tremolo system for a seven-string guitar. These models were based on Vai's six-string signature series, the Ibanez Jem.

Metal musicians often prefer the seven-string guitar for its extended lower range. The seven-string guitar has also played an essential role in progressive metal rock and is commonly used in bands such as Dream Theater and Pain of Salvation and by experimental guitarists such as Ben Levin. Eight-string electric guitars are rare but not unused. One is played by Charlie Hunter , which was manufactured by Novax Guitars.

The largest manufacturer of eight- to string instruments is Warr Guitars. Their models are used by Trey Gunn ex King Crimson , who has his own signature line from the company.

Munky of the nu metal band KoRn is also known to use seven-string Ibanez guitars, and it is rumored that he is planning to release a K8 eight-string guitar similar to his K7 seven-string guitar. Another Ibanez player is Tosin Abasi , lead guitarist of the progressive metal band Animals as Leaders , who uses an Ibanez RG to mix bright chords with very heavy low riffs on the seventh and eighth strings.

Jethro Tull 's first album uses a nine-string guitar. Bill Kelliher , guitarist for the heavy metal group Mastodon , worked with First Act on a custom mass-produced nine-string guitar.

Rich manufactured a ten-string six- course electric guitar, the Bich, whose radical shape positioned the machine heads for the four secondary strings onto the body, avoiding the head-heaviness of many electric twelve-string guitars. However, many players bought it for the body shape or electrics and simply removed the extra strings. The company recognized this and released six-string models of the Bich, a shape now generally incorporated into their standard Warlock. Twelve-string electric guitars feature six pairs of strings, usually with each pair tuned to the same note.

The pairs of strings are played together as one, so the technique and tuning are the same as a conventional guitar, but they create a much fuller tone, with the additional strings adding a natural chorus effect. They are used almost solely to play harmony and rhythm parts, rather than for guitar solos. They are relatively common in folk rock music. Lead Belly is the folk artist most identified with the twelve-string guitar, usually acoustic with a pickup.

George Harrison of the Beatles and Roger McGuinn of the Byrds brought the electric twelve-string to notability in rock and roll.

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