This racerback underwire bra has seamless cups for a smooth look under clothing. See More Hanes Bras. Prices started to make bras available to a wider market, and home-made competition dwindled. Archived from the original on 5 March
His minimalist bra was a revolutionary departure from the heavy, torpedo-shaped bras of the s, initiating a trend toward more natural shapes and soft, sheer fabrics.
It has 54 design elements that lift and support the bustline while creating a deep plunge and push-together effect. Germaine Greer 's book The Female Eunuch became associated with the anti-bra movement because she pointed out how restrictive and uncomfortable a bra could be. In the s, like other garment makers, bra manufacturers moved production offshore.
The contemporary bra also reflects advances in manufacturing and availability of fabric types and colours, enabling it to be transformed from a utilitarian item to a fashion statement, countering the negative attitudes some women had about bras. Designers have also incorporated numerous devices to produce varying shapes, cleavage, and to give women bras they could wear with open-back dresses, off-the-shoulder dresses, plunging necklines, and the like.
Throughout the s fashion led the way in the look and feel of bras. Western TV shows featured classy, powerful, and well-formed ladies, usually donning low cut tops to show an enhanced chest with an equally classy matching bra. The onset of classy and stylish Teddy suits also encompassed this decade and sales of silicone increased the need for bigger and more supportive bras.
Models and celebrities all donned fashionable and extravagant bras, showing these off at red carpets events become the norm. In contrast, feminist Susan Brownmiller in her book Femininity took the position that women without bras shock and anger men because men "implicitly think that they own breasts and that only they should remove bras. Manufacturers' marketing and advertising often appeals to fashion and image over fit, comfort and function. With the growing popularity of jogging and other forms of exercise, it became apparent that there was a need for an athletic garment for women's breasts.
One of the original Jogbras is bronzed and on display near the costume shop of the theatre. Two design challenges that bra manufacturers face at present seem paradoxical.
On the one hand, there is a demand for minimal bras that allow plunging necklines and reduce interference with the lines of outer garments, such as the shelf bra. On the other hand, body mass and bust size is increasing,  leading to a higher demand for larger sizes.
The s brought two large design changes to the bra. This construction can include padded bras, contour bras and so-called T-shirt bras. Also new and ubiquitous in the s was the popularity of printed designs such as floral or patterned prints. Large corporations such as HanesBrands Inc. Victoria's Secret is an exception. Feminist author Iris Marion Young wrote in that the bra "serves as a barrier to touch" and that a braless woman is " deobjectified ", eliminating the "hard, pointy look that phallic culture posits as the norm.
Like other clothing, bras were initially sewn by small production companies and supplied to various retailers. The term "cup" was not used to describe bras until , and manufacturers relied on stretchable cups to accommodate different sized breasts. Camp and Company correlated the size and pendulousness of a woman's breasts to letters of the alphabet: Adjustable bands were introduced using multiple eye and hook positions in the s.
There is an urban legend that the bra was invented by a man named Otto Titzling "tit sling" who lost a lawsuit with Phillip de Bra "fill up the bra".
This originated with the book Bust-Up: In , Danish Fashion historian Rudolf Kristian Albert Broby-Johansen wrote that the topless look, which liberated breasts from bras, should be treated seriously. He asserted that it was a way for a new generation of women to express themselves.
In , he wrote an article titled "Obituary for the Bra" in which he predicted the imminent demise of bras. Brassieres are worn by the great majority of women in Western society. Women, health professionals, feminists and fashion writers appear to be increasingly questioning its place and function, and asking whether it will go the way of pantyhose, garter belts and stockings. It is now commonplace to see models and other celebrities who do not wear bras in public,  including Britney Spears ,  Claire Danes ,  Lindsay Lohan ,  and Nadine Coyle .
Many outergarments like sundresses, tank tops, and formal evening wear are designed to be worn without bras. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
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Archived from the original on 22 March Retrieved 22 March Clothing and Fashion Encyclopedia. Archived from the original on 29 November Retrieved 19 January Archived from the original on 26 March Archived from the original on 21 June Retrieved 13 June Archived from the original on 11 January Archived from the original on 3 November Archived from the original on 9 December Archived from the original on 15 November The girdle of Aphrodite-Venus Archived from the original on 29 June Clarke, Looking at Lovemaking: Constructions of Sexuality in Roman Art B.
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Archived from the original on 4 February The New York Times. Archived from the original on 24 April Professor Farrell-Beck said the antecedents for underwire in bras date to at least , when Marie Tucek of New York City patented a breast supporter , a sort of early push-up bra made of either metal or cardboard and then covered with fabric. A Life of Caresse Crosby.
Archived from the original on 26 June Archived from the original on 12 May The Complete Idiot's Guide to Breastfeeding. Archived from the original on 16 November Retrieved 20 January Archived from the original on 28 August Archived from the original on 18 June Archived from the original on 16 October Archived from the original on 6 July The Berg Companion to Fashion. Archived from the original on 12 July Women at war photos reveal the lengths women went to take men's industrial roles during WW2".
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Journal of Australian Studies Archived from the original on 13 February Retrieved 12 November Company Ellen Tracy Active Movement underwire bra is your everyday style with soft comfort lining.
Company Ellen Tracy Active Movement Company Ellen Tracy Active Movement wirefree bra is your everyday style with light lining. ExOfficio Mens and Womens Apparel An unlined bra designed to provide the perfect fit and lift. Cups covered in patterned mesh. Cups with microfiber overlock stitching hug breasts for a perfect fit See More Le Mystère Bras. Le Mystere Modern Unlined Bra, Signs of a loose bra band include the band riding up the back. If the band causes flesh to spill over the edges, it is too small.
This allows the wearer to use the tighter hooks as the bra stretches during its lifetime. Bras may be designed to enhance a woman's breast size, or to create cleavage , or for other aesthetic, fashion or more practical considerations.
Nursing bras are designed to aid breast-feeding. Bras come in a variety of styles, including backless, balconette, convertible, shelf, full cup, demi-cup, minimizing, padded, plunge, posture, push-up, racerback, sheer, strapless, T-shirt, underwire, unlined, and soft cup.
While there are medical and surgical needs for brassieres, most are worn for fashion or cultural reasons. In the s in the United States, the fashion was to flatten the breasts as typified in the flapper era. During the s and s, the sweater girl became fashionable, supported by a bullet bra known also as a torpedo or cone bra as worn by Jane Russell and Patti Page. As outerwear, bras in the form of bikini tops in the s became the acceptable public display in modern times.
After the Miss America protest in September , manufacturers were concerned that women would stop wearing bras. In response, many altered their marketing and claimed that wearing their bra was like "not wearing a bra". Victoria's Secret commissions a fantasy bra every fall. It became fashionable from the early s to wear clothing that showed bra straps. Madonna was one of the first to start showing her bra straps, in the late s.
Wearing clothes that reveal the bra or straps became so common that Cosmopolitan created guidelines in on how to expose them. Advice included avoiding plain, flesh-toned, smooth-cup bras, so that the exposure does not appear accidental; making sure the bra is in good condition; and wearing a style that either matches the colour of the outerwear or is dramatically different.
Bras are not universally worn around the world; in some third-world countries bras may cost up to 10—30 hours of a woman's wages, making them unaffordable to most of the population.
In Somalia's hard-line Islamic group Al-Shabaab forced women to shake their breasts at gunpoint to see if they were wearing bras, which they called "un-Islamic". Surveys have reported that 5—25 per cent of Western women do not wear a bra. Among the respondents, 67 per cent said they prefer wearing a bra to going braless, while 85 per cent wanted to wear a "shape-enhancing bra that feels like nothing at all. In an online survey for All You magazine in , 25 per cent of women reported that they do not wear a bra every day.
Wearing a bra does not prevent breasts from sagging. Many women, in the mistaken belief that breasts cannot anatomically support themselves, think that wearing a brassiere will prevent their breasts from sagging later in life. The average bra size among North American women has changed from 34B in to a 34DD in —,  and from 36C last year [ when? While there has been some social pressure from the anti-sweatshop and anti-globalization movements on manufacturers to reduce use of sweatshop labour, most major apparel manufacturers rely on them directly and indirectly.
Prior to , a trade agreement limited textile imports to the European Union and the US. When those quotas expired on 1 January , the so-called Bra Wars began.
Within six months, China shipped 30 million more bras to the two markets: Morocco was second and Nigeria third, while Mauritius topped purchasing on a per capita basis. Children were employed to assemble bras and were paid 0. In one day they could earn 20 to 30 yuan.
Informal surveys have found that many women began wearing bras to be fashionable, to conform to social or maternal pressure, or for physical support. Women sometimes wear bras because they mistakenly believe they prevent sagging breasts. While many Western women recognize that they have been socialized to wear bras, they may report feeling exposed or "subject to violation" without one, or that wearing one improves their appearance. In at the feminist Miss America protest , protesters symbolically threw a number of feminine products into a "Freedom Trash Can".
These included bras,  which were among items the protesters called "instruments of female torture"  and accouterments of what they perceived to be enforced femininity. A local news story in the Atlantic City Press erroneously reported that "the bras, girdles, falsies, curlers, and copies of popular women's magazines burned in the 'Freedom Trash Can'".
Feminism and "bra-burning" became linked in popular culture. Dow has suggested that the association between feminism and bra-burning was encouraged by individuals who opposed the feminist movement. Douglas wrote, that the women were merely trying to be "trendy, and to attract men. The trope of feminists burning their bras was anticipated by an earlier generation of feminists who called for burning corsets as a step toward liberation.
In Elizabeth Stuart Phelps Ward wrote:. So burn up the corsets! No, nor do you save the whalebones, you will never need whalebones again. Make a bonfire of the cruel steels that have lorded it over your thorax and abdomens for so many years and heave a sigh of relief, for your emancipation I assure you, from this moment has begun. Some feminists began arguing in the s and s that the bra was an example of how women's clothing shaped and even deformed women's bodies to male expectations.
Professor Lisa Jardine listened to feminist Germaine Greer talk about bras during a formal college dinner in Newnham College, Cambridge , in Greer had become a member of that college in At the graduates' table, Germaine was explaining that there could be no liberation for women, no matter how highly educated, as long as we were required to cram our breasts into bras constructed like mini-Vesuviuses, two stitched white cantilevered cones which bore no resemblance to the female anatomy.
The willingly suffered discomfort of the Sixties bra, she opined vigorously, was a hideous symbol of female oppression.
Germaine Greer 's book The Female Eunuch became associated with the anti-bra movement because she pointed out how restrictive and uncomfortable a bra could be. Susan Brownmiller in her book Femininity took the position that women without bras shock and anger men because men "implicitly think that they own breasts and that only they should remove bras.
The feminist author Iris Marion Young wrote in that the bra "serves as a barrier to touch" and that a braless woman is " deobjectified ", eliminating the "hard, pointy look that phallic culture posits as the norm. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Bra disambiguation and BRA disambiguation. For the type of restaurant, see Brasserie.
List of bra designs. Visible bra strap of Amy Winehouse at a performance, France. Women wearing bras in the form of bikini tops at Woodstock Festival , Poland. The Bra That Conquered the World". Archived from the original on 4 October Retrieved 8 September Still of course the short-waisted gowns mean short-waisted corsets and those ladies who wish to be in the real absolute fashion are adopting for evening wear the six-inch straight boned band or brassiere which Sarah Bernhardt made a necessity with her directoire gowns.
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Archived from the original on 12 March
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