Chapter 12 Bankruptcy - A simplified reorganization plan for family farmers whose debts fall within certain limits. Start at the Back of the Store One evergreen retail strategy is to bury the best discounts-clearance items, especially-in the rear of the store, so you'll encounter racks of beautiful new merchandise before you get to the real nuggets. Payment should first be made as usual, after which shoppers bring the receipts, purchased goods and their passport to a dedicated duty free counter in the store to receive their refund. And because we engage our customers differently—not as vendors but as partners— they know that we own their issues and remain committed to their success.
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Real Asset- Actual, tangible asset such as valuable antique or art, buildings, coins, commodity, machinery and equipment, stamp collection as opposed to financial assets such as bonds, debentures, shares. Salvage - Recovering or saving abandoned, condemned, damaged, deteriorated, discarded, incomplete, obsoleted, or worn property for recycling, refabrication, restoration, reuse, or scrapping. Property that has value in excess of its value as a scrap, but is no longer useful for its intended or original purpose.
Salvage Property - Asset that is no longer useful for its intended or original purpose but has some value in addition to its scrap value because parts or sections of it may still be recovered and reused. Scrap - Waste that either has no economic value or only the value of its basic material content recoverable through recycling.
Self Liquidating Asset - Asset that generates adequate income to return the total amount of its cost, such as a transporter's truck and a bank's mortgage loan portfolio.
Soft Asset- Tangible such as human resources or intangible such a brand, knowledge, skills asset that unlike the hard assets such as cash, equipment, land is not normally included in a firm's financial statements.
Surplus - Goods that are in excess of the requirement and cannot be returned to the vendor for credit, but are useful for some purpose. Tangible Asset - Cash, equipment, machinery, plant, property anything that has long-term physical existence or is acquired for use in the operations of the business and not for sale to customers. In the balance sheet of the business, such assets are listed under the heading 'Plant and equipment' or 'Plant, property, and equipment.
However, they can be used as collateral to raise loans, and can be more readily sold to raise cash in emergencies. Wholesale - Of, relating to, or engaged in the sale of goods in large quantities for resale: Made or accomplished extensively and indiscriminately; blanket: Auction Definitions Auctions - Is a public sale in which property or items of merchandise are sold to the highest bidder. Absentee Bid - Is a procedure which allows a bidder to participate in the bidding process without being physically present.
Generally, a bidder submits an offer on an item prior to the auction. Absentee bids are usually handled under an established set of guidelines by the auctioneer or his representative. The particular rules and procedures of absentee bids are unique to each auction company. Absentee Bidder - A person or entity who does not attend the sale but submits, in advance, a written or oral bid that is the top price he or she will pay for a given property.
Absolute Auction - all items in the auction will be sold to the highest bidder, regardless of the bid. There is no reserve or minimum on the item for bid. All For One Money - multiple items are being offered for sale and what you bid is one price for all of the items. Bids for individual items are not accepted. Apprentice Auctioneer - auctioneer who is in training, operating under the supervision of a licensed or experienced auctioneer. Buyers are solely responsible for examining and judging the property for their own protection.
Auctioneer - The person whom the seller engages to direct, conduct, or be responsible for a sale by auction. This person may or may not actually call or cry the auction. Auctioneer Subcontractor - An auctioneer hired by the principal auctioneer. Also known as a Contract Auctioneer. Auction House- is firms that conducts auctions. Auction Market - A system in which buyers enter competitive bids and sellers enter competitive offers simultaneously, as opposed to the over-the-counter market, where trades are negotiated.
Auction With Reserve - An auction in which the seller or his agent reserves the right to accept or decline any and all bids. A minimum acceptable price may or may not be disclosed and the seller reserves the right to accept or decline any bid within a specified time. Auction Value - Is the price which a particular property brings in open competitive bidding at public auction. Ballroom Auctio n- An auction of one or more properties conducted in a meeting room facility.
Bank Letter of Credit - Is a letter from a bank certifying that a named person is worthy of a given level of credit. Often requested from prospective bidders or buyers who are not paying with currency at auctions. Bid - A prospective buyer's indication or offer of a price he or she will pay to purchase property at auction. Bids are usually in standardized increments established by the auctioneer. Bid Acknowledgment - A form executed by the high bidder confirming and acknowledging the bidder's identify; the bid price and the description of the property; Also known as Memorandum.
Bid Caller - The person who actually "calls," "cries or "auctions" the property at an auction, recognizing bidders and acknowledging the highest bidder. Commonly known as the auctioneer. Bid Evaluation - After the submission deadline, the process of opening, examining, and evaluating bids to determine the bidders' responsibility, responsiveness, and other factors associated with selection of a bid for contract award.
Bidder Number - The number issued to each person who registers at an auction. Bid Rigging - The unlawful practice whereby two or more people agree not to bid against one another so as to deflate value. Bid Spotter, Groundsmen, or Ringsmen - Individuals of a live auction team whose primary responsibility is to accurately interpret and effectively communicate buyer participation to their auctioneer.
They should also be qualified to assist prospective bidders with the necessary information to make a better informed buying decision. Bidder's Choice Buyers Choice - Is the method of sale whereby the successful high bidder wins the right to choose a property or properties from a grouping of similar or like-kind properties.
After the high bidder's selection, the property is deleted from the group, and the second round of bidding commences, with the high bidder in round two choosing a property, which is then deleted from the group and so on, until all properties are sold. Bookkeeper or Clerk - Is the person who is responsible for the accounting and paperwork at an auction sale. The person employed by the principal auctioneer or auction firm to record what is sold and to whom and for what price.
Business-to-Business Auction - Auction where items businesses would buy such as excess or old inventory or unwanted capital equipment are offered for bidding. Business-to-Consumer Auction - Type of auction in which several sellers offer their items for bidding, and compete for the price which a buyer will accept.
The buyer usually has the option to accept any bid or reject all. Bid -based construction or supply contracts are examples of reverse auction. Caravan Auctions- A series of on site auctions advertised through a common promotional campaign. Caveat Emptor - Is a Latin term meaning "let the buyer beware. Certified Auctioneers Institute CAI - The professional designation awarded to practicing auctioneers who meet the experiential, educational and ethical standards set by the Auction Marketing Institute, Inc.
Forward Auction - Auction in which one seller offers item s for bidding and several buyers compete to offer the price the seller will accept.
The seller usually has the option to accept any bid or reject all. Types of forward auction are 1 English auction: Bidding starts at the minimum price acceptable to the seller and increases with every new bid by a fixed increment. Every bidder knows what price is being bid and the highest price bid acceptable to the seller wins. Bidding starts at a price so high no buyer will accept, and which is lowered until the best acceptable price is reached.
Used typically for perishable items like flowers and vegetables. Bidding starts at a low price which goes up in regular increments.
Every buyer present must bid at every stage during the auction. Multiple units of an item are put up for bidding and each bidder can specify the number or quantity he or she wants to bid for.
Hammer Price Price - established by the last bidder and acknowledged by the auctioneer before dropping the hammer or gavel. Lot - Defined quantity of a thing used as a unit of inventory, output, sale, sampling, or transportation. Items in a lot are of a single class, composition, model, size, type, or version, are produced under essentially the same conditions, and are intended to have uniform quality and characteristics within specified limits.
A lot is ordered, sold, released, or delivered in its entirety. An exact lot is called a round lot, any quantity more or less than a lot is called an odd lot. Memorandum - Sometimes also referred to as a "Bidder Acknowledgment," or "Broker Acknowledgment," the memorandum is signed by those parties either on the auction floor or in the contract room.
Minimum Bid Auctio n- An auction in which the auctioneer will accept bids at or above a disclosed price. The minimum price is always stated in the brochure and advertisements and is announced at the auctions. National Auctioneers Association NAA - An association of individual auctioneers united to promote the mutual interests of its members; formulate and maintain ethical standards for the auction profession; promote the enactment of just and reasonable laws, ordinances and regulations affecting auction selling; make the public more aware of the advantages of auction selling; and generally improve the business conditions affecting the auction profession.
Opening Bid - The first bid offered by a bidder at an auction. On-site Auction - An auction conducted on the premises of the property being sold. Preview - Specified date and time property is available for prospective buyer viewing and audits.
Reserve Price- Is the minimum price that a seller is willing to accept for a property to be sold at auction. Reverse Auction - Type of auction in which several sellers offer their items for bidding, and compete for the price which a buyer will accept. Bid-based construction or supply contracts are examples of reverse auction. Sealed Bid - A method of sale utilized where confidential bids are submitted to be opened at a predetermined place and time.
Not a true auction in that it does not allow for reaction from the competitive market place. Sold - when the auctioneer says the word "sold" or the gavel falls after the bidding has ceased, the item is sold as the auctioneer directs to the clerk. The bidding cannot e reopened after the word "sold" is said. Withdrawal - Is the failure to reach the reserve price or insufficient bidding.
Appraisal Cost - In quality control, cost incurred in inspection and test activities aimed at ensuring consistent quality and conformance to established benchmarks. Appraisal Date- Day as of which an appraiser's estimate of value applies.
Also called valuation date. Appraisal fee - Charges payable to a qualified appraiser for estimating the market value of a property, as a fixed fee or one based on a percentage of the estimated value.
Appraisal Procedure - Sequence of steps prescribed in an appraisal approach to arrive at an estimate of value. Also called valuation procedure. Appraisal Report - Written estimate not determination of the value of a property, based on the findings of an appraiser. Appraisal Right - In an acquisition or merger, the right of a dissenting stock holder to require the purchase of his or her shares at their fair market value as determined by an independent party.
This provision prevents the firm's sale at less than its true worth. Appraisal Value - Appraiser's opinion not determination of the current worth of a property based on factors such as area, location, improvements, and amenities. Generally, this value is arrived at by using one of three methods: Appraisement - Determination of the amount or extent of the liability of a party who is not disputing the fact of being liable by an independent and impartial third party, and not by the courts.
Appraiser - Is a person qualified by education, training, and experience to provide appraisals. Appreciated Asset- That has a higher market value than its book value or taxable value and which, upon its sale, will generate a capital gain.
Approaches to Value - the three recognized approaches used in appraisal analysis. Assessed Value - The dollar value of an asset assigned by a public tax assessor for the purposes of taxation.
Asset Valuation - Determination of the value of capital assets or fixed assets, they value at which they should be shown in their owner's balance sheet. Business Inventories - Monthly economic report that shows the dollar amount in inventory held by retailers, manufacturers, and wholesalers during a given period of time. Book Value - A company's common stock equity as it appears on a balance sheet, equal to total assets minus liabilities, preferred stock, and intangible assets such as goodwill.
This is how much the company would have left over in assets if it went out of business immediately. Since companies are usually expected to grow and generate more profits in the future, market capitalization is higher than book value for most companies. Since book value is a more accurate measure of valuation for companies which aren't growing quickly, book value is of more interest to value investors than growth investors.
The value of an asset as it appears on a balance sheet, equal to cost minus accumulated depreciation. Assessment- Procedure used by government assessors to determine the value of a property, or the income of a person or entity, in order to charge taxes or to levy on the orders of a court.
Concepts of Value - appraisal assignments often require more than one value. The appraiser, before beginning the process will investigate the assignment thoroughly in order to arrive at the concept that best suits the situation and purpose of the appraisal assignment.
Some of the most common values are as follows: Cost Approach - Calculation of value beginning with a determination of the replacement cost of a new asset of the same or similar utility, followed by deductions for all forms of depreciation to the subject asset including; physical age, condition , technological obsolescence and economic obsolescence Disposition- Manner in which a case or matter is determined or settled, or a property is transferred to another's care or possession such as by a sale deed or will.
Manner in which an item or material is disposed of such as by disposal, relinquishment, sale, or transfer. Fair Market Value - the estimated amount, expressed in terms of money, which may reasonably be expected for a property in an exchange between willing buyer and a willing seller, with equity to both, neither under any compulsion to buy or sell, and both fully aware of all relevant facts, as of a specific date.
Forced Liquidation Value - the estimated gross amount, expressed in terms of money, that could typically be realized from a properly advertised and conducted public auction, with the seller being compelled to sell with a sense of immediacy on an as-is, where-is basis, as of a specific date. Gross Book Value - Original historical price paid for an asset, without any depreciation deduction.
Imputed Value - Computed or estimated value where actual value is not known. Income Approach - capitalization of current net income or projected net cash flow and discounts those at a calculated rate to estimate current value. This is the least employed approach to value in single asset appraisals of equipment. Insurance Cost New - is the replacement or reproduction cost new as defined in the insurance policy less the cost new of the items specifically excluded in the policy, as of a specific date.
Insurable Value Depreciated - is the insurance replacement or reproduction cost new less accrued depreciation considered for insurance purposes, as defined in the insurance policy or other agreements, as of a specific date.
Market Value - General: Highest estimated price that a buyer would pay and a seller would accept for an item in an open and competitive market.
Market-Based Price - Is arrived at by the process of bargaining among many buyer and many sellers in a competitive market. Retail Price Index RPI - Official measure of the general level of inflation as reflected in the retail price of a basket of goods and services such as energy, food, gasoline petrol , housing, household goods, traveling fare, etc.
RPI is commonly computed on monthly basis, but an annual rate is also published which serves as a yardstick for adjusting inflation-indexed salaries and wages, tax allowances, and pensions. Reverse Appraisal - Evaluation of a management's behavior and effectiveness by the employees, used typically in participatory management practices and employee empowerment programs. Residual Value - the projected value expected by a lesser at the termination of a "fair market value" lease.
This value usually falls somewhere between the fair market value and its orderly liquidation value and is based upon the lessor's calculated expectations of the willingness of the lessee to buy the equipment at its fair market value. IN the event the lessee elects to return the equipment, the lesser is likely to dispose of the equipment at its orderly liquidation value. Sales Comparison or Market Approach - involves the collection of market sales data pertaining to the subject assets being appraised in order to determine the desirability of the assets through recent sales or offerings of similar assets currently on the market in order to derive the most probable selling price for the assets being appraised.
In high tech technology, values change rapidly and little market data may exist for certain assets. Salvage Value - is the estimated amount, expressed in terms of money that may be expected for the whole property or a component of the whole property that is retired from service for possible use elsewhere, as of a specific date.
Scrap Value - is the estimated amount, expressed in terms of money that could be realized for the property if it were sold for its material content, not for a productive use, as of a specific date. Total Value - Sum of all expenditure liable to be incurred such as installation, consumables, breakdown, maintenance, and final disposal plus the purchase price of an acquisition. True Value - Amount that a buyer is willing to pay for an item.
It changes from time to time and from place to place. Valuation - is the act of determining the value or price of anything; evaluation; appraisal. Valuation Method - Means employed by an adjuster to determine the occurrence of a loss and affixing a monetary value to it before processing a claim. The adjuster must establish that 1 the insured actually suffered a monetary loss, 2 the loss was covered in the insurance policy, 3 the monetary value of the loss or damage, and 4 estimated cost of repair or replacement.
Wholesale Price - The cost of a good sold by a wholesaler. The wholesaler will usually charge a price somewhat higher than he or she paid to the producer, and the retailer who purchases the goods from the wholesaler will increase the price again when they sell the good in their store. Bankruptcy Definitions Bankruptcy - A proceeding in a federal court in which an insolvent debtor's assets are liquidated and the debtor is relieved of further liability. Chapter 7 of the Bankruptcy Reform Act deals with liquidation, while Chapter 11 deals with reorganization.
Bankruptcy Court - The bankruptcy judges in regular active service in each district; a unit of the district court. Bankruptcy estate - The estate is all of the legal and equitable interests of the debtor as of the commencement of the case.
From the estate, an individual debtor can claim certain property exempt the balance of the estate is liquidated in a Chapter 7 to pay the administrative costs of the proceeding and the claims of creditors according to their priority. Bankruptcy Judge - Is a judicial officer of the United States district court who is the court official with decision-making power over federal bankruptcy cases. Business Bankruptcy - A bankruptcy case in which the debtor is a business or an individual involved in business and the debts are for business purposes.
Chapter 7 Bankruptcy - The most common form of bankruptcy, a Chapter 7 case is a liquidation proceeding, available to individuals, married couples, partnerships and corporations. Chapter 7 Trustee - Is the person appointed in a chapter 7 case to represent the interests of the bankruptcy estate and the unsecured creditors.
The trustee may also bring actions against creditors or the debtor to recover property of the bankruptcy estate. Chapter 11 Bankruptcy - Is a reorganization proceeding in which the debtor may continue in business or in possession of its property as a fiduciary. A confirmed 11 plan provides for the manner in which the claims of creditors will be paid in whole or in part by the debtor.
Chapter 12 Bankruptcy - A simplified reorganization plan for family farmers whose debts fall within certain limits. A plan of reorganization in Chapter 11, 12 or 13 approved by the court and binding on the parties is said to be confirmed. Chapter 13 Bankruptcy - A repayment plan for individuals with debts falling below statutory levels which provides for repayment of some or all of the debts out of future income over 3 to 5 years.
Chapter 13 Trustee - A person appointed to administer a chapter 13 case. Consumer Debt - Debts incurred by an individual for personal, family or household purposes. Taxes are not consumer debts; neither are business loans.
Creditor - The person or organization to whom the debtor owes money or has some other form of legal obligation.
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